Quanttum computers A quantum computer is a computer that exploits quantum mechanical phenomena. On small scales, physical matter exhibits properties of both particles and waves, and quantum computing leverages this behavior using specialized hardware. Classical physics cannot explain the operation of these quantum devices, and a scalable quantum computer could perform some calculations exponentially faster than any modern "classical" computer. In particular, a large-scale quantum computer could break widely used encryption schemes and aid physicists in performing physical simulations; however, the current state of the art is largely experimental and impractical, with several obstacles to useful applications. The basic unit of information in quantum computing, the qubit (or "quantum bit"), serves the same function as the bit in classical computing. However, unlike a classical bit, which can be in one of two states (a binary), a qubit can exist in a superposition of its two "basis" states, which loosely means that it is in both states simultaneously. When measuring a qubit, the result is a probabilistic output of a classical bit. If a quantum computer manipulates the qubit in a particular way, wave interference effects can amplify the desired measurement results. The design of quantum algorithms involves creating procedures that allow a quantum computer to perform calculations efficiently and quickly. Physically engineering high-quality qubits has proven challenging. If a physical qubit is not sufficiently isolated from its environment, it suffers from quantum decoherence, introducing noise into calculations. National governments have invested heavily in experimental research that aims to develop scalable qubits with longer coherence times and lower error rates. Two of the most promising technologies are superconductors (which isolate an electrical current by eliminating electrical resistance) and ion traps (which confine a single atomic particle using electromagnetic fields). In principle, a classical computer can solve the same computational problems as a quantum computer, given enough time. Quantum advantage comes in the form of time complexity rather than computability, and quantum complexity theory shows that some quantum algorithms are exponentially more efficient than the best known classical algorithms. A large-scale quantum computer could in theory solve computational problems unsolvable by a classical computer in any reasonable amount of time. While claims of such quantum supremacy have drawn significant attention to the discipline, near-term practical use cases remain limited.
New quantum computers - Potential and pitfalls | DW Documentary

Quetzalcoatlus God created the Quetzalcoatlus before God created the garden of Eden as recorded by Moses the holy prophet of God Genesis 1:24 & God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, & creeping thing, & beast of the earth after his kind: & it was so. Quetzalcoatlus is a genus of azhdarchid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Maastrichtian age of North America. Its name comes from the Aztec feathered serpent god Quetzalcoatlus. The type species is Q. northropi, named by Douglas Lawson in 1975. The genus also includes the smaller species Q. lawsoni, which was known for many years as an unnamed species, before being named by Brian Andres and Wann Langston Jr. (posthumously) in 2021. Q. northropi has gained fame as a candidate for the largest flying animal ever discovered.

Quetzalcoatlus: The Largest Flying Animal EVER to Live | Dinosaur Documentary

Quinkana God created the Quinkana before God created the garden of Eden as recorded by Moses the holy prophet of God Genesis 1:24 & God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, & creeping thing, & beast of the earth after his kind: & it was so. Quinkana is an extinct genus of mekosuchine crocodylians that lived in Australia from about 25 million to about 10,000 years ago, with the majority of fossils having been found in Queensland. Four species are currently recognized, all of which have been named between 1981 and 1997. The two best understood species are Q. fortirostrum, the type species, and Q. timara, a more gracile form from the Miocene. The other two species, Q. babarra and Q. meboldi, from the Pliocene and Oligocene respectively, are only known from a few poorly preserved bone fragments. The name Quinkana comes from the "Quinkans", a legendary folk spirit from Gugu-Yalanji mythology. Quinkana is primarily known for its ziphodont teeth, meaning they were recurved, serrated and possessed flattened sides that gave them a blade-like shape. However, technically such teeth are only known from two species, as the basalmost form lacked serrations while the holotype of Quinkana fortirostrum did not preserve teeth in its alveoli. The genus is distinguishable by the combination of these ziphodont teeth and a deep, altirostral skull that is sometimes compared to those of sebecosuchians and planocraniids, leading some early researchers to mistakenly assign Quinkana to said groups. Quinkana is typically estimated to be around 3 m (10 ft) in length and to weigh around 200 kg (440 lb), though some remains from the Pliocene could suggest an even greater size. However, these estimates are based on fragmentary specimens and dimensions of related genera as there have been no complete Quinkana specimens found. The genus has been argued amongst paleontologists to be either terrestrial or semi-aquatic, with both sides providing a variety of arguments. Academic analysis cites comparative morphologies as indicators of Quinkana’s habitation to be terrestrial, commonly comparing the anatomy of the crocodilian to other, more definitively terrestrial crocodylomorphs from the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. The discovery of pelvic bones that belonged to a crocodilian with a pillar-erect stance in the same strata as Quinkana also support this line of thinking, even though no clear overlap to confirm this hypothesis exists. While the majority of mekosuchine researchers support the idea that Quinkana was terrestrial, some counter arguments have been raised in the past, especially highlighting that Quinkana is still consistently found to have lived near freshwater. The role Quinkana filled in the ecosystems of Late Pleistocene Australia has also been a matter of debate, with older literature in particular often claiming that the continent was dominated by reptilian predators. Opponents of this hypothesis meanwhile highlight how Quinkana was relatively rare, whereas large marsupial predators like Thylacoleo were much more common. Regardless of its lifestyle and behavior, Quinkana is predominantly found in sediments preserving various types of woodland in proximity to bodies of water such as ponds, streams and billabongs. Though successfully surviving a drastic arid period that marked the transition from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene, Quinkana would eventually die out towards the end of the Pleistocene, with estimates suggesting that it died out somewhere between 40.000 and 10.000 years ago. The precise reasons for Quinkana's disappearance are unknown, but it is hypothesized that another period of intense aridification gradually dried up the river basins and destroyed the forests that the crocodilian inhabited, leading it to go extinct alongside much of Australia's megafauna. Humans, which arrived on the continent around the same time, were likely not responsible for this chain of events.
Quinkana: A terrestrial crocodilian from ice age Australia